Monday, August 24, 2020

A womans self esteem Essay Example For Students

A womans confidence Essay Nathaniel Brandens A Womens Self-Esteem gives an inside view to helping ladies improve their confidence and start to carry on with a more beneficial, more joyful life. Confidence is simply the capacity to encounter as being skilled to adapt to the fundamental difficulties of life and to be equipped for looking for bliss. It comprises of two segments: self-adequacy, or the capacity to picked, learn, think and settle on suitable choices, and dignity, the option to be ecstatic, the conviction that accomplishing, making companions, succeeding, cherishing and satisfaction are meriting for us. Confidence is basic to all people to have sound turn of events. On the off chance that one comes up short on a positive confidence, mental development would be amazed. Branden depicts a womans confidence as a structure of six columns; with no one column the entire structure would crumple. The columns incorporate every one of the accompanying: living deliberately, self-acknowledgment, self-obligation, confidence, living intentionally, and living with uprightness. Each issue is talked about in detail, and individual stories are described to give proof of one of a kind contextual investigations in which these points are found. In the finish of every clarification of the theme, Branden incorporates a sentence consummation practice in which sentence stems are given and the peruser is coordinated to rapidly react by adding a completion of each stem. This activity is an amazing technique for perspectives and is fantastic for discharging ones thoughts through composition. The work later portrays exceptional conditions in which confidence assumes a key job. These extraordinary issues include: sentimental love, the dread of self-centeredness, envy, communicating outrage, preventiveness, and achievement tension. Each subject is secured explicitly and these sections likewise include contextual investigations and extra sentence fulfillment works out. Branden comforts the peruser by guaranteeing her or him that albeit one may frequently feel remorseful for these emotions, they are typical, and without them one would get merciless in their own bliss. This region of the book, whenever acknowledged, is grouped with numerous significant, long lasting exercises and directions. Branden then proceeds to edify the peruser with engaging methodologies to help in disentangling the riddles behind a portion of these outstanding issues, which one might have the option to apply to their own life. The end leaves the peruser with an earnest want to endeavor to consummate their confidence. Or maybe truly, I discovered Brandens consideration of a womans confidence to be to some degree vexatious from the outset. I thought that it was hard to peruse a work proposed for a female crowd yet composed by a male. In spite of the fact that this supposition might be marginally chauvinist, I felt just a lady knows a womans sentiments and thusly would be increasingly able to communicate her feeling on such an issue. I rapidly defeated this predisposition the further I read Brandens work. In spite of the fact that he is male, he is truly proficient and sagacious; he knows a gigantic sum on this subject, making him similarly as reasonable to compose such a book as any lady might be. While perusing this work I started to scrutinize my own confidence, trusting that it will hold up to the norms set by Branden. It is hard to acknowledge the reality ones confidence isn't great and won't have the entirety of the characteristics listed in the work. The peruser must acknowledge the possibility that like everything else, improving ones confidence will take work, devotion and time. Changing a quality as essential as confidence can be very requesting. One is obliged to get aware of the truth that we are not great, and yet we should endeavor to filter and free our confidence everything being equal; fundamentally endeavor to accomplish a ground-breaking, certain and solid confidence. Brandens establishment, from which the whole book is assembled, is simply the six columns our regard is built upon. We should acquire each of the six columns to in reality have a solid and solid confidence. Anne Frank Essay I have thought that it was hard to endeavor to satisfy each of the six perspectives, yet with some work it is conceivable. To live deliberately I attempt to acknowledge the realities of reality without shirking or forswearing. To act naturally tolerating I should understand the truth of my contemplations, feelings and activities. I attempt to be aware and caring to other people and myself and hold all associations with incredible worth. I am .

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Stride Toward Freedom Free Essays

Indistinguishable Thought in â€Å"Patient† and â€Å"Topic of Cancer† Once I was presented to perusing â€Å"Patient† and â€Å"Topic of Cancer† I put myself in Christopher Hitchers and Rachel Reedier shoes and acknowledged how humor, can be utilized in a loathsome circumstance. Not every person may realize what a malignant growth tolerant needs to experience yet as days pass by everybody has experienced a circumstance that can't deal with on their own. By perusing these two articles, I naturally had a psychological mage of what and how the storyteller felt. We will compose a custom paper test on Step Toward Freedom or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now In the article, â€Å"Patient†, Reedier is attempting to help the state of mind by utilizing humor all through the entire article. The two articles have various likenesses that have individual accounts that clarify their biography. The articles are comparable with Hitchers and Reedier with the utilization of tone in the â€Å"Patient† and â€Å"Topic of Cancer† through silliness, pictures and terrible circumstances. Silliness can be clever much of the time, however in the â€Å"Patient† and â€Å"Topic of Cancer†, the writers show the peruser that agony can be a healthy circumstance. In the article, â€Å"Patient† a young person was hit by a transport and later on was educated that her leg may should be excised. The creator utilizes phrases saying, â€Å"l feel like I got hit by a bus† to show his demeanor on how he genuinely feels about this circumstance (Reedier 166). Hitchers, the writer of the â€Å"Topic of Cancer† communicates humor all through the article in methods of saying, â€Å"The chest hair that was at one time the toast of two landmasses hasn’t yet withered, however such an extensive amount it was shaved off for different emergency clinic entry points that it’s a fairly inconsistent affair† (Hitchers 88). Hitchers is communicating how he has lost the entirety of his hair, and he can in any case take a gander at it in a clever manner (The Best American Essays). Reedier and Hitchers clarify how circumstances like these can be occupied with various ways. Anybody can accept these papers as genuine as could reasonably be expected yet can likewise accept them as a comical circumstance. As Reedier and Hitchers experienced the expositions, the storyteller clarified how they had battled through their circumstance and still discovered uplifting demeanor. Reedier utilizations an uplifting disposition by saying, â€Å"It is anything but difficult to be quiet reason I can't generally have been run over by a bus† (Reedier 165). As unpleasant as the circumstance may sound the storyteller portrays it as not as terrible is it is by all accounts. Hitchers clarifies how the circumstance should be in a positive manner, â€Å"l some of the time wish I were enduring in a decent purpose, or hazard my life to benefit others, rather than being a gravely imperiled patient† (Hitchers 88). The storyteller communicates how she would prefer to be languishing over a valid justification as opposed to being in the clinic with malignant growth (The Best American Essays). Both of the articles demonstrate that you can battle through any sort of injury or illness regardless of how basic the circumstance can collect. The storyteller shows his confidence by saying, â€Å"She would make the driver move that transport, however I can’t see her† (Reedier 165). In the â€Å"Topic of Cancer† Hutchins appears, how he feels about his conditions and findings with the statement, â€Å"To the stupid inquiry â€Å"Why me? † the universe scarcely tries to restore the answer: â€Å"Why not? † (86). He is clearly taking a gander at his ailment as a constructive result when numerous individuals take a gander at it as their life is finished (The Best American Essays). Despite the fact that disease can murder somebody and losing a leg can cause passing, both of the storytellers kept an inspirational disposition. Both of the storytellers begin by asking themselves â€Å"why me†, as the articles proceed with the â€Å"Patient† continues carrying on with a sound life, however in the article â€Å"Topic of Cancer† he is as yet battling for his life. There are likenesses all through the tales indicating the manner in which they feel, and demonstrating their feelings through silliness yet at long last there is an alternate result. Step by step instructions to refer to Stride Toward Freedom, Papers

Monday, July 20, 2020

The Hawthorne Effect and Behavioral Studies

The Hawthorne Effect and Behavioral Studies Basics Print The Hawthorne Effect and Behavioral Studies By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 15, 2017 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on November 11, 2018 Nick David / Getty Images More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming The  Hawthorne effect  is a term referring to the tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. The term is often used to suggest that individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables. The Hawthorne effect has been widely discussed in psychology textbooks, particularly those devoted to industrial and organizational psychology. However, some of the more recent findings suggest that many of the original claims made about the effect may be overstated. A Brief History of the Hawthorne Effect The effect was first described in the 1950s by researcher Henry A. Landsberger during his analysis of experiments conducted during the 1920s and 1930s. The phenomenon is named after the location where the experiments took place, Western Electric’s Hawthorne Works electric company just outside of Hawthorne, Illinois. The electric company had commissioned research to determine if there was a relationship between productivity and work environments. The original purpose of the Hawthorne studies was to examine how different aspects of the work environment, such as lighting, the timing of breaks, and the length of the workday, had on worker productivity. In the most famous of the experiments, the focus of the study was to determine if increasing or decreasing the amount of light that workers received would have an effect on how productive workers were during their shifts. Employee productivity seemed to increase due to the changes but then decreased once the experiment was over. What the researchers in the original studies found was that almost any change to the experimental conditions led to increases in productivity. When illumination was decreased to the levels of candlelight, production increased. In other variations of the experiments, the production also improved when breaks were eliminated entirely and when the workday was lengthened. The results were surprising and the researchers concluded at the time that workers were actually responding to the increased attention from their supervisors. Researchers suggested that productivity increased due to attention and not because of changes in the experimental variables. Landsberger defined the Hawthorne effect as a short-term improvement in performance caused by observing workers. Researchers and managers quickly latched on to these findings, but later research has shown that these initial conclusions did not convey what really happening. The term Hawthorne effect remains widely in use to describe increases in productivity due to participate in a study, yet additional studies have often offered little support or have even failed to find the effect at all. More Recent Research on the Hawthorne Effect Later research into the Hawthorne effect has suggested that the original results may have been overstated. In 2009, researchers at the University of Chicago reanalyzed the original data and found that other factors also played a role in productivity and that the effect originally described was weak at best. Levitt and List uncovered the original data from the Hawthorne studies and found that many of the later reported claims about the findings are simply not supported by the data. They did find, however, more subtle displays of a possible Hawthorne effect. Some additional studies have failed to find strong evidence of the Hawthorne effect, and in many cases, other factors may also influence improvements in productivity. In situations involving worker productivity, increased attention from experimenters also resulted in increased performance feedback. This increased feedback might actually lead to an improvement in productivity. The novelty of having experimenters observing behavior might also play a role. This can lead to an initial increase in performance and productivity that may eventually level off as the experiment continues. Demand characteristics might also play a role in explaining this phenomenon. In experiments, researchers sometimes display subtle clues that let participants know what they are hoping to find. As a result, subjects will sometimes alter their behavior to help confirm the experimenter’s  hypothesis. While the Hawthorne effect has often been misrepresented and perhaps overused, Rogelberg notes that the term continues to be a useful general explanation for the impact of psychological phenomenon such as typical versus maximal performance, and socially desirable responding (i.e., faking good). So what can researchers do to minimize these types of effects in their experimental studies? One way to help eliminate or minimize demand characteristics and other potential sources of experimental bias is to utilize naturalistic observation techniques. However, it is also important to note that naturalistic observation is simply not always possible. Another way to combat this form of bias is to make the participants responses in an experiment completely anonymous or confidential. This way, participants may be less likely to alter their behavior as a result of taking part in an experiment. A Word From Verywell Many of the original findings of the Hawthorne studies have since been found to be either overstated or erroneous, but the term has become widely used in psychology, economics, business, and other areas. Despite this, the term is still often used to refer to changes in behavior that can result from taking part in an experiment.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Ancient Mesopotamia And Ancient Civilizations - 896 Words

Throughout many cultures in ancient civilizations, humans have held a belief in superior beings to which they called gods. The gods, in the eyes of many of the ancient people, were responsible for many things such as crop growth, storms, fertility, and even creation of life. The Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and the Hebrews all had gods that they interacted with. Understanding the likenesses and differences in how these people interacted with their gods might give us an insight to how similar or different the three civilizations were. In ancient Mesopotamia, humans had many gods. According to their beliefs, there was a war between the old gods and the new gods. They were created by the storm god Marduk when he defeated the god Tiamat’s champion Quingu. From Quingu’s remains. Marduk created man and they were to be co-laborers with the gods to hold off the forces of chaos in order to keep the communities running smoothly. The humans provided the gods with everything they needed from food to sacrifices and taking care of the temples which were the god’s homes on earth. In return the gods took care of the humans in every aspect of their lives such as continued health or a good harvest. It was the god Enlil who legitimized the rule of kings. This is what gave a particular person the right to impose their rule over all others. The person who rules is the one who has direct communication with the god of their city. Even though there is communication with the gods, this did notShow MoreRelatedAncien t Civilizations Of Mesopotamia And Mesopotamia1851 Words   |  8 Pages Sumerian (3500-2300BC)Babylonian (1792-1750 BC) both belong to civilizations of Mesopotamia, but they existed different period. The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia are the source of the earliest surviving art; these civilizations were situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Dating back to 3500 B.C.E., Mesopotamian art was intended to serve as a way to glorify powerful rulers and their connection to divinity. Art was made from natural resources such as stone, shells, alabasterRead MoreMesopotamia And Its Impact On Ancient Civilization994 Words   |  4 PagesMesopotamia, or â€Å"land between the rivers† as the name translates to in Greek, is exactly as it states; in the region of southwestern Asia, the land itself is named for it s initial position between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. However, Mesopotamia can be defined as having a reach into what is now Syria, Turkey and most of Iraq (History of Mesopotamia, 2016). This ancient civilization houses one of the earliest cities throughout human history, appearing around 3500 BC, though human settlementRead MoreEssay on Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Greek Civilizations1810 Words   |  8 PagesMichael Jones 10/5/2012 Cabrera Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Greek Civilizations The Ancient Egyptians, Mesopotamia, and Greeks were some of the oldest complex societies, although similar in many aspects. Mesopotamia is located in the Fertile Crescent, land in and between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers usually known as modern day Iraq and Eastern Syria.(24) In Egypt, the Nile River creates a fertile valley which is rich in nutrients and essential to their survival. The Nile flows fromRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Civilizations, Mesopotamia And Ancient China868 Words   |  4 PagesMany of the early world civilizations had similar experiences when evolving to become the influential societies that affected other societies. They were called the first civilizations because they were able to form the first functional communities, successful systems of organized laws over people, the distinction of social classes, economic income, and development of arts and educations. Two of histories well-known civilizations, Mesopotamia and Ancient China had similar experiences in the beginningsRead More Exploring The Four Ancient Civilizations- Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Israel1009 Words   |  5 Pagesnumerous cultures, each unique in some ways while the same time having features in common. Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Israel are all important to the history of the world because of religious, social, political and economic development. In the first civilization, both Mesopotamia and Egypt relied on a hunter-gatherer economic system, during that time, every country in the world strived on it. Mesopotamia had rich soil for agriculture, but experiences floods. For the Mesopotamians, theseRead MoreHow Did the Geographic Features of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Impact Civilization Development?1786 Words   |  8 Pagesimpacted a civilizations development in great measures. Depending on the resources available or the detriments present due to certain topographical characteristics like rivers or deserts, a civilization could flourish or collapse. By studying the geographic features of growing societies like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers as well as the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the link between developing cultures and geography will be examined through sources, including Egypt: Ancient CultureRead MoreRelevance Of Mesopotamia Essay1566 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The relevance of ancient Mesopotamia can be simply stated: Mesopotamia produced the world’s first humanists - studying ancient Mesopotamia enables students to explore what it is to be human,† (Jamieson Ancient Mesopotamia: Discovering Civilisation 23). The Fertile Crescent is where the start of civilization occurred, and it is often called the ‘cradle of civilization,’ (Jamieson Ancient Mesopotamia: Discovering Civilisation 23). Understanding the development, the of civilization in the Fertile CrescentRead MoreRiver Valley Civilizations Essay726 Words   |  3 PagesAncient river valley civilizations are one of the earliest societies in the world. The rises of these ancient river valley civilizations started the first cradle of civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mesopotamia, and Ancient China are the earliest civilizations that were successful enough to make enough food for everybody. Every one of these civilizations had three things in common: they all had a special relationship with the river, they created their own writingRead MoreEssay On Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia867 Words   |  4 Pages Though most ancient civilizations settled on rivers, each one tended to be different due to the characteristics of their nearby rivers. Two civilizations that differed significantly from one another were the civilizations of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. Not only are the rivers of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt seemingly perfect to compare, but the two civilizations also existed around the same time as one another; meaning that the overall impact of their respective rivers on their societies canRead MoreSimilarities Between Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia951 Words   |  4 Pagessocieties would form and later become civilizations. Two of the earliest considered civilizations in human history are Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, because of the different geography, exposure to outside invasion, influence, and beliefs, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia came to not only contrast in political and social structures but also share similarities in them as well. When it came to the development of Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations politics played a prominent role in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Interpersonal Communication - 1292 Words

| | |VET105 Veterinary Office Management Research Project | | | |Software | | | |Cori Shepler†¦show more content†¦A day in the life of a veterinary technician may include answering clients’ questions, providing written or verbal instructions regarding care of an animal, answering the telephone,Show MoreRelatedInterpersonal Communication753 Words   |  4 PagesTitle Student’s Name COM200: Interpersonal Communication Instructor’s Name Date (Sample March 19, 2014) Introduction- Thesis Statement * If you’re having difficulties writing a thesis, use the thesis generator in the Ashford Writing Center - Remember, a thesis should make a claim – a definitive statement – about some issue. Here is an example: Effective communication is the most important factor in a successful relationshipRead MoreInterpersonal Communication And The Self1351 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout this semester in communications I have learned a lot about myself, how to deal with others, relationships, and more. There were some lessons that stood out to me the most, and that I thought about after class. The first was in chapter 3 about interpersonal communication and the self. During this chapter, we took a piece of paper and put four people that we knew down. We chose someone who we were just getting to know, and then others that we knew very well or that were very close to usRead MoreInterpersonal Communication1053 Wo rds   |  5 PagesInterpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is defined by Michael Cody as: the exchange of symbols used to achieve interpersonal goals(28). Does this definition include everything, or does it only include certain things?. When we are dealing with the issue of interpersonal communication we must realize that people view it differently. In this paper I will develop my own idea or definition of what interpersonal communication is. I will then proceed to identify any important assumptionsRead MoreInterpersonal Communication2332 Words   |  10 PagesAbstract Interpersonal communication is a form of communication involving people who are dependent upon each other and with a common history. There are various aspects of interpersonal communication that can be discussed. This paper looks at the principles of interpersonal communication, its barriers and relationship with emotional intelligence. Four principles are identified, which are: interpersonal communication is inescapable; interpersonal communication is irreversible; interpersonal communicationRead MoreInterpersonal Communication Elements2395 Words   |  10 PagesInterpersonal communication is cyclic in nature. The message I sent and then feedback is given to complete the communication cycle. As it is on going hence the relationship that is impersonal at the beginning turns into interpersonal where one person is at times the sender and at other times the receiver. A. Source [sender] – Receiver:  Interpersonal communication involves at least 2 individuals. Each person formulates and sends message [sender activity] and at the same time receives and comprehendsRead MoreInterpersonal Communication And The Workplace946 Words   |  4 PagesInterpersonal communication in the workplace is developed positively or negatively on the individual relationships we have combined with our human behaviors and human actions within each of those relationships. There are many things that can affect interpersonal communications within the workplace, from generational that create technological gaps, to diversity and tolerance it creates, and finally the type of workplace, is it a team environment encouraging inclusiveness within the organization orRead MoreInterpersonal Communication Skill Of Feedback983 Words   |  4 PagesThe interpersonal communication skill of feedback is essential for hospital nurses to give a suitable care to each patient because it enables the nurses to learn, and improve their motivation, performance and efficiency that assist to achieve their goal which is to help the patients heal. The interpersonal communication skill of feedback is a system of conveying information between two people regarding the receiver’s performance (Baker et al. 2013). In general, feedback is employed to deliver informationRead MoreThe Effects Of Interpersonal Competence On Interpersonal Communication1053 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Interpersonal competence is an aspect of communication that is rarely given attention despite being a crucial facet of human interaction. In fact, Beebe et al. argue that it is comparable to breathing for being do critical to human growth (2). According to Beebe et al., this aspect of communication is necessary to maintain relationships and to improve affairs between lovers (6-7). To enhance our competence in interpersonal communication, we need to learn and master ways of verbally relatingRead MoreCommunication : Understanding Interpersonal Communication1554 Words   |  7 PagesI. Introduction AND Thesis Statement Communication is the number one key in a relationship, especially when you re talking about marriage. I would like to take this moment to say congratulation on your recent marriage. I want to tell you that communication helps build a healthy personal foundation by implementing small talk in helping resolve conflicts through growth and helps reduce any barriers that prevent you from having a happy, successful marriage. Remember that no one is perfect at communicatingRead MoreCommunication Theory Of Interpersonal Communication Essay1219 Words   |  5 PagesProposal: Applying Communication Theory to the Study of Interpersonal Communication Marriages in the United States is at an all-time low, while divorces are at an all-time high. One may wonder why is that. Some couples are divorcing because of irreconcilable differences. One could ponder if divorce is a solution due to a breakdown in communication. This proposal will determine if communication theory can be applied to interpersonal communication to create a lasting relationship. This study will

The Lion and the Mouse Free Essays

A Kion was awakened from sleep by a Mouse running over his face. Rising up angrily, he caught him and was about to kill him, when the Mouse piteously entreated, saying: â€Å"If you would only spare my life, I would be sure to repay your kindness. † The Lion laughed and let him go. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lion and the Mouse or any similar topic only for you Order Now It happened shortly after this that the Lion was caught by some hunters, who bound him by st ropes to the ground. The Mouse, recognizing his roar, came gnawed the rope with his teeth, and set him free, exclaim You ridiculed the idea of my ever being able to help you, expecting to receive from me any repayment of your favor; I now you know that it is possible for even a Mouse to con benefits on a Lion. † In The Lion and the Mouse fable, the audience can not only be young generation, but also old generation. In this specific fable, young generation can get some benefits, such as how to trust other people, how can we let other people trust us, what can the young people do to the old people, and what is the importance of having friends. In the other side, the older generation can use this fable to dress their children by showing them how great friends can help them in the difficult or impressments situation. The fable prevent from being seen is that the young people can not only help the old people, but also they can do something valuable to society, such as creating new technology and developing an old system. As people growing up, they tend to think that they are becoming stronger and they could do anything they want, which tend to be wrong. They should use their power to protect their families and help other people. For example, if you go to work out every day to build your muscles, you become a strong man that can carry heavy things or equipment. However, some strong men when they have the right or if someone did something bad and he did not mean to, they would hurt him and sometime they would kill him. The idea is really oblivious, which is the people are in this life is to help each other, that’s mean the Vulnerable people can help the people who have the power is one way or the other, so the people who has power should not hurt Vulnerable people because you may need their help in the future. How to cite The Lion and the Mouse, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Life and Death in Viginia Woolf free essay sample

In order to find answers to this, her ultimate question, we must search through her recurring themes to interpret our own vision of Woolfs views on the main aspects of life as we know it. This paper will demonstrate how Woolf explored the meaning of life and death within the inner thoughts and relationships of her characters and how she used ambiguous characters to demonstrate the need for a balance in ones relationship with the self and with others in order to truly find happiness in life. In Mrs. Dalloway, the issue of life and death in cooperation with the characters emotional and mental inner-workings is a prominent theme. Woolf addresses the meaning of life and how one should live theirs, as well as how one should not. Woolf balances the importance of individual self and the dissemination of that individuals self among others within a cast of interconnected characters. We will write a custom essay sample on Life and Death in Viginia Woolf or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The question of life and death is repeatedly explored through Clarissa, Peter, and Septimus- often in a more connected way that one might notice during a first reading. In â€Å"Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway†, Andelys Wood suggests that â€Å"The challenge to readers is that the reality ime in the mind and time on the clock, the experiences of the writer, characters, and readers, all are connected by the novels web† (19). In the novels opening Clarissa is walking through town to buy flowers for her party. She puzzles over the meaning of our own being and the sure inevitability of death while juxtaposing these ideas with her own superficial worries about her stately dinner engagement. Her fusing of the two ideas into one inner conversation becomes the proposed hypothesis throughout the rest of the work, the inner-connectedness of all people. In chapter one, Woolf writes, â€Å"somehow in the streets of London, on the ebb and flow of things, here, there, she survived, Peter survived, lived in each other, she being part, she was positive, of the trees at home; of the house there, ugly, rambling all to bits and pieces as it was; part of people she had never met; being laid out like a mist between the people she knew best, who lifted her on their branches as she had seen the trees lift the mist, but it spread ever so far, her life, herself† (9). This statement, this idea of being constantly a part in others lives while holding onto some sense of autonomy, becomes the proposition on which Woolfs philosophy on the meaning of life and death begins. The emphasis of being in tune with others while imposing the importance of the individual self is shown foremost through Woolfs heroine, Clarissa Dalloway. It is made clear through her character the importance of the privacy of emotions; however, Clarissa also explores the healthy balance of this privacy in conjunction with the societal norms her characters are subjected to. Woolf imagines Clarissa Dalloway as a middle-aged woman who is outwardly very happy with her choice to have married Richard Dalloway, a conservative government official and an obvious manifestation of the era’s constrictive conservative government. Clarissa is dependent on Richard, both emotionally and financially. In â€Å"Nature and the Nation in Mrs. Dalloway†, Melissa Bagley notices that â€Å"Many of her characters employ metaphors that equate women with that which is delicate, depicting the woman described as necessarily dependent† (38). Clarissa is the perfect opposite of this notion. While Clarissa seems to be the perfect and sedate housewife, she remains independent in her own spirit and mind. Woolf explains this in chapter one, when she writes that For in marriage a little license, a little independence there must be between people living together day in day out in the same house; which Richard gave her, and she him (8). This isolation of self is then starkly compared to the comic character of Peter Walsh who, in adoring Clarissa so fervently and interfering with her intimate relations to Sally Seton, left no possibility for her private self. Woolf demonstrates this when she says that â€Å"But with Peter everything had to be shared; everything gone into (8). This fluidity of thought between Clarissa and Peter is shown at varying points throughout the novel, however, Clarissa maintains that while it may be the direct and ever present communication of feeling, even romantic love, it is not a positive condition and even reflects on its detrimental quality to herself and Peters lives by saying, â€Å"And it was intolerable, and when it came to that scene in the little garden by the fountain, she had to break him or they would have been destroyed, both of them ruined† (8). A similar idea is shown through Clarissas love for Sally Seton in which Clarissa experiences both intense emotion and the necessary privacy to express this emotion through the upsetting scene in the garden with Sally and Peter. Clarissas life is structured not only by her tendency to love intensely passionate and overly-communicative people, but also in her reserve for articulating her tendency, as seen through her marriage to Richard Dalloway and her resultant social status. Septimus Warren Smith, a WWI veteran suffering from PTSD who is often viewed by critics as Clarissas correlate in the novel, is someone who realizes his emotional feeling as well but refuses to conform to the patriarchal societies’ norms to an extreme degree. His private emotion is brought to the reader and to the world when he talks to his dead comrades or revels in the beauty of seemingly mundane events. He is decidedly too defiant to societal norms and is oppressed by members of the establishment. His eventual suicide reveals that he is willing to â€Å"take the plunge† and spurns the counterpart lift of emotions connected with the integration and compromise of self for society (3). On the other hand, Clarissa engages in both spectrums of emotion- â€Å"What a lark! What a plunge! † (3). His suppressed emotions were eventually laid out to the public by his plunge into the unknown world of death, wherein Septimus can become part of the entire world with which he has lost contact. In â€Å"The Terror and the Ecstasy: The Textual Politics of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway† Patricia Matson hypothesizes that Woolf uses the character of Septimus Smith to represent â€Å"the crushing of the human spirit as a consequence of dogmatic patriarchal authority† (Matson 174). His refusal to repress his fears and regrets about war and suffering is a source of social embarrassment and further separates him from the realm of society, connecting him to the individual portion of the spectrum. Matson insists that the character Sir William Bradshaw, the stereotypical psychologist who is convinced that he holds the key to Septimus recovery, is the ultimate representative of this establishment, a self-serving and oppressive authority. Matson suggests that â€Å"Woolf shows us that his notions of an acceptable social impulse are discursive fabrications that keep at bay whatever threatens to disrupt the order that serves him so well† (74). Sir William, described in an extremely boring and unassuming manner, is the extreme of domination and power; he has established his own reputation for himself through routine and regularity. He responds to Septimus illness by effectively prescribing him to the â€Å"rest cure†, which we now know pushed many people over the edge of reason. By doing this, Sir William excludes Septimus Smith from communicating with any other characters when he says, â€Å"Try to think as little about yourself as possible† (96). However, as is shown with Clarissa Dalloway, this attempt to consider only the others around you and not yourself is a more than likely road to madness and to the destruction of the self. While Matson reveals the chaos in which Woolf inserts her characters, it must be acknowledged that Woolf does indeed allow them windows of opportunity for survival, exploring each one until she finds which seems to work well with the self and the world, â€Å"Posing, as it does, a challenge to authority in all its various forms without ever becoming prescriptive† (163). While she may not ultimately land on one specific point of view, Woolf certainly sympathizes with Clarissas thoughts and feelings demonstrating that she has reached a close and personal relationship with Clarissas, or her own, individual self which can be noticed in her thoughts of sexuality and philosophies of life. In addition, Clarissa seems to be the most content individual of the characters because she balances in the center of many of the characters. In a way, Woolf is guiding the characters, and therefore the audience, through the ultimate question of being and self. Matson elaborates, saying that â€Å"The spectators (readers) quest is not simply to accept the writing process but also to translate that process into some ultimate word† (166). This â€Å"ultimate word† is something that is possibly the review of self and of life; the consequence of associations, of love, of humanity, and of death all at once. The barrier to this invention, in Mrs. Dalloway, is the patriarchal censorship of the self and the marginalization of personal emotions and interests for the good of the whole and for the advantage of the powerful. Woolfs quest for this is evident, as Jane Fisher explains in â€Å"Silent as the Grave: Painting, Narrative, and the Reader in Night and Day and To The Lighthouse† as â€Å"she attempts to bridge not only the gap between the living and the dead but a more stubborn discipline between the living and the living† (95). This quest also manifests itself into Woolfs other famous novel, To the Lighthouse, which considers these questions even more artfully. The characters in this novel continue to represent the opposites of human personality; however, Woolf does not supply an exact middle-ground protagonist as she does in Mrs. Dalloway, perhaps suggesting that this answer is not as simple as previous critics had theorized. While the opposite ends of the spectrum are easily identifiable through Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay, the characters balancing the weight are of a much greater importance to the question of being. In the essay, â€Å"Towers in the Distance†, Diane Cousineau delves into the understanding of this concentrated emotional continuum as well. Her argument uses gender issues to sound off; however, a further reading can be salvaged from her hypothesis. Mrs. Ramsay is seen as a muse and matriarch who feels it is her duty to perform her role, which is to keep everyone blissfully happy and protected from the harsh realities of life. Mr. Ramsay is seen as the errant philosopher who is creatively motivated by his striking and domesticated wife and the visualization of his â€Å"perfect† family. In Cousineaus essay, she views the lighthouse as the representative of the human genders, â€Å"From the base of broad receptivity, the tower grows narrower as it ascends, suggesting that the containing female vessel is finally to be transcended at a point that is exclusively male and isolate† (54). Although, as Cousineau points out, Woolf decidedly uses gender as a main theme in her expression of ideals it is clear that there is a broader, more enveloping issue involved. While it cannot be denied that gender is a concurring and simultaneous issue, this idea of the tower can also be viewed as the manifestation of human identities searching for their needed role in the labyrinth of existence’s meaning. In addition, while the tower line itself is divided into genders it is more and more ambiguous in identity towards the center of the scale. The â€Å"creative force† at the base of the tower represents the social realm, the idea of the self influencing and also being influenced by others. Towards the climax of the tower the force becomes more and more transcendental and particular, leaving he person unaccompanied to deal with more intellectual ideals and less with insignificant matters such as children or marriage plans. Going along with Cousineau, it is evident that Mr. Ramsays character is determined to find in his valiant and scholarly quest the meanings of the letter R which have made him so representative of the patriarchal visions of oppressive society; however, while he is overbearing, he does have redeeming qualities. It seems he is just trapped within the mindset of the male-dominated world and universe, which again melds the ideas of position with gender. Woolfs description of Mr. Ramsay in the first few pages of the novel make his character a solid position representing the patriarchal peak of the tower by saying that â€Å"He was incapable of untruth; never tampered with a fact; never altered a disagreeable word to suit the pleasure or convenience of any mortal being, least of all his own children, who, sprung from his loins, should be aware from childhood that life is difficult; facts uncompromising; and the passage to that fabled land where our brightest hopes are extinguished, our frail barks founder in darkness† (4). Mrs. Ramsay expresses a different view, however, one of the shielding and inspiring force, that â€Å"To pursue truth with such an astonishing lack of consideration for other peoples feelings, to rend the thin veils of civilization so wantonly, so brutally, was to her so horrible an outrage of human decency that, without relying, dazed and blinded, she bent her head as if to let the pelt of jagged hail, the drench of dirty water, bespatter her unrebuked† (32). Mrs. Ramsays concern is mostly of a social and relational aspect, creating an atmosphere which provides comfort and inspiration for others in the novel. These two main and obviously opposing personalities are met in the middle by numerous character elements contained within the children and within Lily Briscoe. Woolf makes an effort to explore and, at times, refute certain arguments which could resolve the conflict between the two views. She makes it perfectly evident that the marriage of these concerns to one another is not an answer as she explores the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay. She also explores this connection through younger characters, Minta and John. The dominance of one over the other in any way makes the other dependent and weak, wasting each other instead of working together to meet a goal. The oldest children who follow in their parents footsteps are also led to their demise, concluding that both ends of the spectrum are destroyed. Prue Ramsay dies in childbirth one year after her â€Å"happy marriage†, â€Å"Which was indeed a tragedy, people said, everything, they said, had promised so well†, while her brother, Andrew, dies in the Great War, signifying mans intellectual idealism bringing on his own destruction (122-3). Clearly, Woolf is assuredly making a point that these roles do not provide the answer to life, and in fact, will destroy the life itself. These deaths bring about the importance of life and the importance of living it the way it is most productive and beneficial to both the individual self and the social realm. Fisher believes it is crucial to the search to Woolfs meaning, â€Å"Yet in its destructive capacity, death also guarantees the defeat of these searches for a stable absolute that can resist time (96). This search for an ultimate meaning once again has risen to the top of the novels concerns and attempts, where marriage has failed, to unite the two ends in a balance. Fisher, however, believes that Woolf has twisted the traditional find into something much more complicated and confusing. She suggests that â€Å"Although the goal is unattainable, the novel portrays that the effort to reach such a goal is heroic† (101). On the contrary, it is evident that the process itself, the struggle for balance of self and others, is the meaning- leading to the answers which Woolf has struggled to convey, as Fisher claims, â€Å"What life means finally cannot be separated from how it achieves meaning† (102). In this, the readers see Woolfs call for moderation and the essentiality of productivity of the human self. While Mrs. Ramsay attempts to keep windows, perhaps windows of communication, open, she finds a problem- â€Å"Every door was left open† (27). This over-production of communication leaves her unable to express herself privately, because she is too open to giving and letting others into her personal realm. Mrs. Ramsays inability to have a private self eventually leads to her death, leaving Mr. Ramsay unable to produce without her muse-like inspiration. In this sense, their marriage was a failure because neither could either relate to their private selves nor social atmospheres in the long run, and were left completely lost or destroyed. In addition, their way of life created a detrimental role model for the other characters that they influenced in their respective strength, therefore, they passed on and created a chain of destruction which is represented in both failed relationships and in the advent of the war. The salvation of relationships and the meaning of life then becomes an important part in the discovery of self and others and the dynamic of these in these two particular novels. Characters who alter or cross these heavily prescribed boundaries in the spectrum become closer to achieving the important communion between self and others. Lily Briscoe is a prime example of this androgynous and balanced self. She, unlike other characters, finds herself closer to the realization of lifes meaning through her experience with the Ramsay family. In â€Å"Virginia Woolfs Quest for Equilibrium†, Nancy Topping Bazin notices that Lily has grown closer to this realization because of her struggle to deal with the death of Mrs. Ramsay. She recalls that â€Å"Mrs. Ramsay has died and Lily is longing and crying out for her. But then, having successfully pictured her again in her minds eye, she suddenly longs for Mr. Ramsay, for she wants to share her vision of Mrs. Ramsay with him† (311). Lily, through her ambiguous nature, has come the closest in the novel to answering the question of life. She is struggling to find her place in life and her attempts at great artistry can be seen as attempts at immortality, a desire to continue influencing life long after her end through painting. This type of communication is similar to Clarissa Dalloways idea that she is part of everyone and everything she has known or come into contact with throughout her life. However, Lily also acknowledges the limitations of this ambiguous communication- â€Å"It would be hung in the servants bedrooms. It would be rolled up and stuffed under a sofa† (158). It is perhaps indicative of the importance of the social realm of art which is something that is a personal expression of the self. This recognition of the importance of both areas of being is a clear sense of revelation, in which Lily finds herself completing her work of art; however, she does it with great difficulty. Cam and James, portraying the future of the novels characters, are also foreshadowing an attempt at a balance of self and others. Both are intimately connected to their mother in early life, who is representative of the social side of the spectrum, while it is seen that there is an extremely broad rift between Mr. Ramsay and these two children. Woolf writes, â€Å"But they vowed, in silence, as they walked, to stand by each other and carry out the great compact- to resist tyranny until death† (163). However, they are both influenced by their father and his representation of individuality embodied by the poetry line, â€Å"We perished, each alone† (191). This clear sense of individualism and responsibility for self is something which tips the scales into balance towards the end of the novel, as they travel towards the lighthouse. According to Cousineau, the lighthouse contains both the â€Å"male† features and â€Å"female† features, perhaps again granting it an androgynous status. Cousineau claims that Woolf purposefully did this in order to grant the reader a glimpse into the answers of life, somewhere no one has thought to look in a dominantly patriarchal society, â€Å"In place of unified and coherent subject and linear time, she insisted on fragmented moments of subjectivity lived simultaneously in the present, past and future† (Cousineau 56). This look at the meaning through a different angle gives Woolf an advantage in exploring this idea of self in a new way, which perhaps is symbolic of the way in which people receive the meaning in life. Woolf does not play the part of the omnipotent narrator and leaves much open to question; however, in doing so, she explores many options without assuring a particular answer, something which would become as problematic as the opposite spectrum beliefs of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay. In this sense, it becomes the way of thinking and finding which becomes most important in the discovery of life and meaning in self. Woolf attempts to create her characters in imitation of the life that one lives, not in a timeline, therefore the central balance is necessary for the reader. Unfortunately, it is unable to be pinpointed exactly because it is no longer on a linear spectrum. This leaves the quest for enlightenment in life and death to be the actual fulfillment of self, because it is easily recognizable that nothing more than death is in store for us all in the end. Fisher describes this idea when stating that â€Å"The valorization of process arises from the novels awareness of temporal inevitability and a teleology that leads only to death† (101). Mr. Ramsay also becomes an important figure in this discovery, because while he is formerly an agent of individuality, he must learn after Mrs. Ramsays death to adhere to relational needs for himself and not have them provided for him. This, while apparently difficult at first, connects Mr. Ramsay with his children and gives him an ultimate sense of balance which promises a new future for his children and for himself. As they approach the lighthouse, Mr. Ramsays children, although reluctantly, seem to be affected by his presence, â€Å"for she was safe, while he sat there; safe, as she felt herself when she crept in from the garden, and took a book down, and the old gentleman, lowering the paper suddenly, said something very brief over the top of it about the character of Napoleon (191). His sense of security comes with the balance of Cams social characteristics and her yearning for the individual intellectual atmosphere which she so seems to crave from her father. James also seems to acknowledge his fathers praises, although they must reach the island of the lighthouse before this can happen. Woolf conveys this by writing, â€Å"He was so pleased that he was not going to let anyone share a grain of his pleasure† (206). Although in the end they leave the island of their childhood to arrive with their father at the tower, they do not leave without the effect of the origin of their being. The relational need of humans is evident, even when needing to express their individual selves. Woolf has deftly maneuvered to supply the reader and her characters with what Matson called â€Å"subversive keys† to her vision of life and it’s meaning (164). This balances the crucial nature of both relational and individual exploration and dependence. In order to live and live fully, one must develop these parts equally, for each is vital to the others success. This idea is explored in both her primary novels, Mrs. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse. Through this reading one can interpret Woolfs use of the inner thought and relationships of her characters, as well as her use of ambiguous characters, as demonstrating the need for a balance in ones relations with the self and with others in order to find true happiness in life.